Friday, September 9, 2016

Q & A About Cod Liver Oil


Why and How We Take Cod Liver Oil
Cod liver oil is a true superfood. This nutritional powerhouse provides Vitamins A and D, plus Omega 3's, DHA, and EPA.  Weston A. Price's studies showed that the diets of traditional people contained ten times the amounts of Vitamin A and D present in modern diets, and this higher nutrient-content led to people with robust health and virtually no cavities. 

In working to improve the dental health of children, Weston Price used cod liver oil as an important supplement to a nutritious once-per-day meal being given to children who had rampant tooth decay. With just one healthy daily meal plus cod liver oil, Weston Price "completely controlled the dental caries [cavities] of each member of the group." Additionally, two different school teachers reported that one of their pupils (who was undergoing Weston Price's nutritional protocol) had changed "from one of the poorest in the class in capacity to learn to one of the best."  

In my own family, Rosita's extra-virgin cod liver oil is the cod liver oil that has worked best for us. It's mild flavor and superb nutrition have made it a win-win. We don't take it daily, or even year-round. Rather, we take it in the winter months when our sun exposure is lower and we start to feel a craving for it. I tend to crave a dose of EVCLO about twice a week in the winter months.
 

Cod Liver Oil Controversy and Confusion

Over the last few years, there has been much controversy surrounding fermented cod liver oil, which my own family stopped taking back in 2012 after experiencing multiple bad reactions to it. Many people are now confused about what all the controversy means, whether test results even matter, and which cod liver oil to take.  In my own role as local chapter leader for both the Weston A. Price Foundation and the Hunt Gather Grow Foundation, cod liver oil is one of the things I am asked about the most. 

I decided to have a written conversation with Archie Welch, who is one of the most knowledgeable people I know when it comes to cod liver oil. I wanted to know the answers to questions such as these:  Does the species of cod actually matter?  How can consumers tell whether they are buying true cod liver oil? What factors should be taken into account in order to make wise decisions about which cod liver oil to take?  Following are my questions with answers from Archie.

 

Questions and Answers About Cod Liver Oil

How did you become interested in the science and methods involved in cod liver oil production?


In 2007, Dan Corrigan founded Corganic with a mission to help others recover and maintain their health through diet. Dan, Karen Myers and I had met some years earlier putting together a health festival. We enjoyed working together and shared a passion for holistic health and nutrition. Dan asked Karen and me to join Corganic in 2009 which we agreed and we’ve been working together ever since. 

From the outset we set the bar high for Corganic to sell only the best foods and supplements, and if the best isn’t available, we’ll make it ourselves. Unhappy with the lack of quality in the probiotic market, Dan and Karen started working with mothers of Autistic children, some with severe gut issues. After years of research and testing they developed GutPro, a very potent yet gentle probiotic. GutPro is the only multi-strain probiotic that contains absolutely no fillers, no soil strains and not cultured on dairy or soy. Any strains that could adversely affect those with very sensitive digestive systems were omitted. GutPro has produced amazing results for thousands of people with gut issue and remains our number one selling product.

Along with the introduction of GutPro we created Organic 3 as our brand of digestive health supplements which now includes GutPro capsules, GutPro Infant, Yeastbiotic, Primal Gut and Primal Soil probiotics plus two highly effective digestive enzymes- GutZyme Assist and GutZyme Restore.

Helping people re-establish their gut flora with our therapeutic probiotics and digestive enzymes is a crucial first step. From there it is a matter of providing them with foods and food-based supplements that can boost their nutrient levels and immune system. In 2012, cod liver oil was high on our list of therapeutic foods that Corganic could provide in addition to our Organic 3 product line. That is how I first became interested in the production, history and science of cod liver oil.


I know you've done a lot of research into cod liver oil, and I found your article about cod liver oil history to be very illuminating. You were instrumental in getting Rosita to produce their extra-virgin cod liver oil (since they were previously only making ratfish oil in very limited quantities). With so many other cod liver oil options on the market, why did you think there needed to be another one?


My initial investigation into the cod liver oil industry was an eye opener. I quickly learned that 99 percent of all cod liver oil on the market use processes that severely damage the vitamins inherent in the oil. Most of the producers will then fortify the oil with synthetic vitamins. This was unacceptable to my business partners and me. In 2012, the only naturally-produced cod liver oil was the Green Pasture fermented cod liver oil. We tried the fermented cod liver oil, but found it to be much too harsh for our clients, who by and large have very sensitive digestive systems, in addition to taste and texture sensitivities. 

I stumbled across Rosita in the winter of 2012, and as you pointed out, they were making ratfish liver oil. Using an old Viking technique for extracting the liver oil without the use of heat, pressure or chemicals, Rosita is able to capture the nutrients in their raw state, which is exactly what we were looking for in a fish liver oil. Ratfish liver oil contains rare lipids, vitamins, omega fats and other nutrients. Only drops are needed daily and the taste is mildly fishy. We still recommend ratfish liver oil to our most sensitive customers.

I had discussions with Rosita about using the same Viking technique for extracting cod liver oil from the Atlantic cod. They had played around with cod liver oil previously for their own consumption and said it was definitely feasible. At my urging and their own desire to make a cod liver oil that was of the highest quality and efficacy, they moved forward with plans to make Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil a reality. We first introduced samples of EVCLO at the Weston A. Price National Conference in 2012. From there it took another two years for Rosita to get the antioxidant package perfected, purchase a bottling facility, run tests, obtain the necessary certifications and work out all of the details that come with launching a new product. Rosita finally launched EVCLO in the fall of 2014. I may have started the conversation and urged Rosita to create Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil, but they took the reins and made it happen. Rosita is an amazing small Norwegian family business of dedicated people passionate about nature and good health. 

So while there are a multitude of cod liver oils on the market to choose from, there is only one cod liver oil that is made fresh and raw from wild-caught Atlantic cod. EVCLO is in its own special category. Discerning customers who understand the significance of a fresh cod liver oil on their health are passionate about EVCLO.   


Can you give a brief breakdown of the typical steps involved in cod liver oil processing, what they are, and why how/why they lower the quality of the oil? 


There is a blog Corganic created that explains all of the industrial processes cod liver goes through for the vast majority of the brands on the market.



The end result of the industrial process is the creation of a pharmaceutical grade cod liver oil that is shelf stable, almost completely cleared of contaminants and easy on the taste buds. The oil is also sterile, denatured and fortified with synthetic vitamins. Rosita’s philosophy is to produce cod liver oil in such a way that it remains in its natural unadulterated form. All of the health-giving nutrients in EVCLO are fully available to the consumer just as they exist in the liver of a living codfish. 


Okay, so I know that Rosita is the best cod liver oil, because of the way it is produced and the way I crave it in the winter months. One common complaint I hear is that it is too expensive, although I think the price ends up being fairly low when people are willing to take it just as often as their body craves it instead of taking it daily. If you couldn't use Rosita, what would you look for in a cod liver oil? Which factors do you think are the most important?


Most people understand raw milk, free range eggs or grass fed beef from a local farmer are more expensive than the factory farmed version they can buy at the grocery store. We believe the nutrient value of the farm food and its value to your family’s health are worth the extra expense. If we apply that same logic to cod liver oil you can begin to see why EVCLO is priced differently than other cod liver oil brands. EVCLO is crafted fresh and raw in small batches to produce one of the most valuable foods you can dispense to your family. 

Knowing how most cod liver oil is produced, if EVCLO was not available I would focus on getting my vitamin A from eggs, meats, liver, etc. and my vitamin D from fatty fish and sunlight. The beauty of fresh EVCLO is getting concentrated amounts of nutrients in their natural state in one daily teaspoon. 

For those who feel they cannot afford EVCLO, there are still options especially for those taking high doses of synthetic vitamin D as prescribed by their practitioner. Nordic Naturals Artic cod liver oil is industrially processed which damages the vitamin A and almost completely destroys the vitamin D. They are the only industrialized producer that I am aware of that does not add synthetic vitamin A and D to their oil. According to the Nordic Naturals bottle label the oil contains 140 – 885 mcg of vitamin A which converts to 230-920 IU of vitamin A per teaspoon. The vitamin D level is listed as 0-20 IU/tsp which is basically saying there is zero vitamin D. Vitamin A and D should be taken together ideally in a 10:1 (ten units of vitamin A for every one unit of vitamin D) ratio to prevent vitamin A toxicity and depletion of vitamin D. Taking Nordic Natural Arctic cod liver oil would provide some natural vitamin A to help to balance out the high doses of the isolated synthetic vitamin D drops and tablets.

A few other brands state their cod liver oils are cold pressed preserving the natural state of the vitamins. Cold pressing is the process of extracting the oil from the liver which is a bit of a misnomer. It’s what happens after the oil has been extracted that determines whether a cod liver oil is industrially processed or not. I would be wary of low cost cod liver oils advertised as virgin or extra virgin. 

Factors I believe are important in a cod liver oil are the species of fish (Gadus morhua), the vitamins A and D in a good ratio (in the range of 10 units of vitamin A for every unit of vitamin D), minimally processed, sustainable fishing practices and a producer that is transparent with their processes from start to finish.  


Are there any rules/regulations regarding the labels that consumers can be aware of (such as there are for organic foods, free-range vs pastured eggs, etc)?

The only rule governing the production of cod liver oil is the Omega 3 DHA/EPA thumbprint. True cod liver oil made from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has a unique DHA/EPA ratio that favors DHA (the DHA levels are higher than EPA levels). The opposite is true for most all other fish species including other species of cod. Beyond having the correct EPA/DHA ratio there are no rules which opens the door for companies that will say and do anything to promote their oil as the best and most natural.

Even the largest and most respected names in the cod liver oil industry can mislead the consumer. For example, the Supplements Facts on the Carlson Labs cod liver oil bottle label states the vitamin A and vitamin D are (from cod liver oil) which would lead one to believe the vitamins are in a natural state. However if you call Carlson, they will readily admit they add synthetic vitamins. Truly it is buyer beware when it comes to cod liver oil and fish oils.


With all of the controversy over what species of fish is used to produce cod liver oil, why does it matter what type of cod is used? Is there a difference in the nutrient-profile between different species? And what species was used historically?


For 200 years true cod liver oil has been produced from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) species of fish. Only recently has there has been the production and distribution of cod liver oil from other species of cod with the notion that “cod is cod”. Species of cod i.e. Haddock, Lingcod, Alaska Pollock, Pacific (Alaska) Cod, Blue Cod, Rock Cod etc. share traits with Atlantic cod but are very different in their feeding grounds, lifespans and nutrient profiles.

It’s important to understand that all of the historical documentation on the dramatic healing effects of cod liver oil, all of the important studies performed using cod liver oil including the discovery of fat soluble vitamins A and D in the 1920’s, all of the clinical successes from administering cod liver oil and all of the production and consumption of cod liver oil from its earliest inception as a medicinal to the present have been from Atlantic cod liver oil produced primarily in northern Norway. To assume the medicinal qualities of cod liver oil from Atlantic cod are somehow conveyed to another species of cod is scientifically and historically unfounded. There is simply no data to back up such claims.

Rosita’s philosophy is simple. Catch the same fish (Atlantic Cod) from the same waters (Northern Norway) that has been historically documented to produce the most potent and healing cod liver oil known to man.


Do you know what species of cod was used for the cod liver oil used by Weston Price in his groundbreaking nutritional studies?


The Price-Pottenger Nutritional Foundation delved into the archives of Dr. Weston Price and sifted through hundreds of photos, manuscripts, papers and notes to discover the cod liver oil that Dr. Price may have used. 

According to Dr. Price’s notes he was very aware of cod liver oil production in Norway and Iceland as he undoubtedly sought out the best cod liver oil for his experiments. Based on their processes which included fish caught on small boats, livers brought to shore the same day, the oil captured raw/fresh and is light (pale) in color, Dr. Price deemed the Squibb brand of cod liver oil to be “excellent”. Never heated, never exposed to chemicals and protected from sunlight, moisture and oxygen Squibb Cod Liver Oil was produced strictly from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Bergen, Norway. 

Dr. Price's notes describe a cod liver oil that falls directly in line with how Rosita produces Extra-Virgin Cod Liver Oil (EVCLO). 



And I think it is interesting that Weston Price also recommended that people use caution with cod liver oil dosages, and not force cod liver oil upon their children. Price did find that cod liver oil had superb health effects, but during Price's day, cod liver oils were generally rancid, and so Price knew that taking it in large quantities could actually have negative health consequences. I am so glad that now, because of modern technologies including natural antioxidants and nitrogen-flushing of bottles to prevent oxidation, my family can take extra-virgin cod liver oil and not have to worry about those rancidity issues.  Are there any relatively easy ways for consumers to tell whether a cod liver oil is made with true cod?
 

Check the Supplement Facts on the bottle label for the Omega 3 fatty acid profile. If the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels are higher than eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels, it is a sure sign you have purchased true cod liver oil from the Atlantic cod (G. morhua). If however the EPA levels are higher than DHA levels, it is not a true cod liver oil. Carlson Norwegian Cod Liver Oil, Nordic Naturals Arctic Cod Liver Oil and Rosita Real Foods Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil all have the correct ratios for true cod liver oil. There are several brands with this ratio upside down that are not using Atlantic cod and incorrectly labeling their product as cod liver oil.   


What about ways that people can assess the quality of their cod liver oil (such as its appearance and taste)?


Winterization is one of the many processes commercial cod liver oil is exposed to. The oil is cooled to sub-zero temperatures, causing crystallization and reduction in the amount of saturated fatty acids, triglycerides and waxes. Removing the saturated fats and triglycerides destabilizes the oil, as the remaining polyunsaturated fats, in the form of omega fatty acids are fragile and oxidize easily. A cod liver oil that is watery in appearance and pale is more than likely winterized. 

A quick test you can perform to determine if your cod liver oil has been winterized is to cool the oil down by putting it in the refrigerator. If the oil clouds up and gets thick, then it has not been winterized. If it remains clear and easy to pour, it has been winterized. Chances are if the oil is winterized it has also been exposed to molecular distillation, deodorization, alkali refining, bleaching and other invasive processes that denature the oil.

Rosita’s Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil is never exposed to industrial processes; the oil is made fresh and raw just as nature intended. 


What are some things to be wary of in reading the labels on cod liver oil bottles?


Bottle labels can be misleading. Many producers either omit crucial information or state it in such a way as to be purposefully confusing or vague. If you really want to know more about a particular cod liver oil brand it is best to read their website or call them up and ask the following questions:

  • What is the species of cod used to make the cod liver oil? If the species is not Atlantic cod I would steer clear of it regardless of whether the vitamins are in their natural state or not. Atlantic cod has the perfect ratio of vitamins which is why it is so healing. Other species of fish and even other species of cod do not have this important ratio. The imbalance normally occurs with having too much vitamin A and not enough vitamin D. This can eventually lead to depleted levels of vitamin D and possibly toxic levels of vitamin A.
  • Are the vitamins A and D preserved in their natural state? Molecular distillation and deodorization are processes for removing contaminants such as PCB’s and dioxins. The heat used in these processes can reach 390 degrees Fahrenheit severely damaging the vitamin levels and denaturing the oil. As previously stated the Nordic Naturals brand of Arctic cod liver oil is molecularly distilled but has no added synthetic vitamins. The vitamin A levels are between 466 IU/tsp and 2,950 IU/tsp and the vitamin D is basically zero. Any cod liver oil brand that is molecularly distilled and indicating a vitamin content above these levels is adding synthetic vitamins.
  • How are the contaminants removed? This is where I start to see some of the lesser known producers start to grapple with their descriptions. Cod can live up to five years or more. During that lifetime they absorb a certain amount of contaminants thanks to our polluted oceans. It is crucial the contaminants are brought down to acceptable levels. The large producers are proud of the fact their cod liver oil is molecularly distilled. They want their customers to know the oil is pharmaceutical grade and the contaminant levels are near zero. To these producers the near-zero contaminant levels are more important than preserving the nutrients in their natural state. Other producers are not so open about their processes for removing contaminants or they ignore the subject altogether. If a producer gives a vague answer or no answer to this question they either have no controls on the contaminant levels or they do not want you to know the oil has been distilled and then fortified with synthetic vitamins. Using materials from the ocean that attract contaminants, Rosita Real Foods filters EVCLO and ratfish liver oil in a very gentle manner that does not employ the use of heat or chemicals. EVCLO’s contaminant levels are below European and US limits while preserving the nutrients in their raw, extra virgin state. Rosita is the only cod liver oil producer testing each batch of EVCLO and ratfish liver oil for contaminants and then posts the results on their website.
  • What is the color of the oil? True cod liver oil is a golden color. Pale yellow oils are a sign of bleaching and/or other industrial processing. Reddish oils indicate that it is not Atlantic cod from the Norwegian region.
  • Does the oil require refrigeration? This is a question that doesn’t get asked often enough. Cod liver oil has an abundance of fragile polyunsaturated fats that oxidize (go rancid) easily and very little in the way of natural antioxidants. Even though Rosita's EVCLO is fresh and raw, the bottles are nitrogen flushed and the oil is capped with no oxygen coming in contact with the oil. Once a bottle is opened and exposed to air the oxidation process begins. Refrigeration does a great deal to slow down that process. Producers who do not require refrigeration more than likely used intense processes to sterilize the oil similar to the processes used to make vegetable oils.

Thanks, Archie, for taking the time to answer all of my questions!  I hope this information will help people in being able to choose the best cod liver oil for their families. I love that you provided ways for people to assess cod liver oils on their own, since there is so much misinformation in the cod liver oil industry and on labels.

Do you find this Q&A to be helpful? Do you have any other questions about cod liver oil?

 

 

 

 

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4 comments:

Hibber said...

Thanks for this article. Can CLO help widen my 12 year old daughter's jaw to allow room for all her teeth?

Sarah Smith said...

In my own experience with my daughter (whose palate was not wide enough to accommodate her teeth), a great diet including CLO was not enough to help her jaw widen. However, there are great orthodontic options that can help with that. You can see my blog posts about orthodontic options for widening palate here:
http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2014/05/my-7-year-old-needs-orthodontics-eek.html

http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2014/05/why-were-not-using-conventional-braces.html

http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2014/07/alternatives-to-conventional-braces.html

http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2014/07/selecting-orthodontist-or-dentist-and.html

http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2015/05/my-daughters-orthodontics-one-year.html

SAra Krahn said...

Hi! I am looking to purchase Rositas CLO and was wondering what dosages you use or recommend. I have a 14 month old, 3 year old and a 4 year old who I am looking to give CLO to boost immunity this winter.

Sarah Smith said...

Hi Sara,
I take about 1/2 tsp for a dose, and I give my kids just a bit less than that. We don't take it every day, but rather we let our bodies guide the dosing by when we feel a desire for it. That typically works out to about twice a week in the winter months (but we do live in the desert and have lots of sunshine year-round, so maybe that is why we don't seem to need it super often).