Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Tips for Planting the Summer Vegetable Garden and Deep Mulch Gardening

This post is an updated version of one that was originally published in April 2011.
We've passed our last frost date here in southern New Mexico, so it is time to plant the summer garden! I'm excited for the year ahead, and hoping to try a few new techniques this year. I have a couple new raised beds for more planting space this year, and I'm going to try out deep mulch gardening in some areas instead of my usual method. The keys to a happy garden are good soil, the right amount of water, and plenty of sunshine.

Plan it Out
Before I planted my first summer garden a few years ago, I drew up a little plan of my garden and mapped out where I would plant everything.  Then I actually planted things and learned that the "plan" was totally off. These days, I still like to do at least a bit of planning ahead for plant placement. I do the following:
  • Take stock of old seeds - If you've previously planted a garden, you may still have some old seed packets.  Figure out what you've got and what you still need for this year. I only had to buy a couple seed packets this year. 
  • Plan for companion plants - For instance, tomatoes will benefit from being planted near parsley and dill, and would enjoy the afternoon shade offered by sunflowers.  Basil likes to be planted near tomatoes. For more ideas, check out my post on companion planting with herbs.
  • Get a rough idea of plant placement - Make sure to find a nice, sunny spot for your plants.  To reduce pests and diseases, it is a good idea to make sure you don't plant the same type of plants in the same location year after year.  I also need to re-think plant placement a bit each year because my compost heap changes locations and other plants (like strawberries) have taken over more area in the garden.
Prep the Soil and Add Compost
Good soil is key to a flourishing garden.  The ideal soil will have plenty of nutrients for the plants, will drain away excess water to prevent root rot, and will also retain enough moisture to keep the plants from drying out too much between waterings. Even if you have great soil, at a minimum you'll still want to turn over the dirt in your garden annually (unless you want to try the deep mulch gardening technique, which I will describe later in the post). This ensures that the ground is not too hard-packed so that roots can easily grow.  It also helps to mix nutrients evenly into the soil since certain areas may have been depleted by previous plantings.

If you don't have very good soil, you'll need to amend it to make it better.  Overly sandy soil drains too quickly and the plants will dry out too much.  In some yards, there is clay soil which is problematic since it drains very slowly and is very compacted (which makes it hard for roots to grow). The best thing to use for amending your soil is compost!

Compost is basically decomposed plant matter, and it is full of nutrients.  Using compost is a great way to enrich the soil as it retains just enough moisture and provides all the fertilizer your plants will need to grow and thrive.  The ground in my yard is full of sand and rocks.  Every year I remove more rocks and add more compost, so over time my garden soil is getting better and better.

Compost is also great to use because it can be very cost effective. I have two large compost piles, and it is wonderful to put all of my vegetable scraps plus yard waste to such good use.  If you don't yet make your own compost, check to see if your local city has any available.  In my area, we can get compost for free at the city landfill.  You can also buy compost at the store.  Whichever compost you use, make sure it is fully composted before planting your vegetables in it.  My mom uses store-bought compost and finds it best to amend the soil and then wait 1-2 weeks before planting.

Get to Planting
Once your soil is ready, you can start planting!  Some plants, like tomatoes, get planted individually with plenty of space between plants.  Other plants, like corn, get planted in rows.  And then squash, cucumbers, and melons get planted in hills.

When transplanting tomato or tomatillo plants, it is a good idea to plant them much deeper than other seedlings. The bottom of the main stem (which includes some leaves) should be buried in the ground.  This will give the tomato plants a head start as roots will grow off the main stem.

This year, the edible plants in my garden will be:
  • Tomatoes
  • Butternut squash, spaghetti squash, zucchini, and yellow squash
  • Cucumbers
  • Sunflowers, marigolds, and nasturtiums
  • Strawberries 
  • Swiss chard
  • Watermelons
  • Pumpkins
  • Green onions
  • Celery
  • Corn
  • Parsley, basil, oregano, dill, mint, and thyme

Make it Beautiful with Flowers
I take a queue from my mom and always plant flowers in with my vegetables.  This makes the garden beautiful to look at, but it also aids the vegetables.  For instance, sunflowers can provide late-afternoon shade for tomatoes, marigolds can benefit strawberries, and zinnias can attract lots of beneficial pollinators.  Nasturtiums are also great to plant as bugs are more attracted to them than to your veggies. For more information on companion planting with flowers, check out the Extreme Gardening book.

Set up the Watering System
Where I live, we have a yearly rainfall of only 8-11 inches so supplemental watering of the garden is absolutely required!  If you don't get regular rain in your area, you'll also need to supplement the water in your garden.  I know many people who like to use sprinklers or even water with the hose by hand, but my preferred method for watering is a drip system. Drip systems are wonderful for many reasons:
  • Drip systems deliver water directly to the ground around your plants.  This keeps the plants healthy and beautiful as many do not like having their leaves wet.
  • If you use a timer with your drip system, it will ensure that your plants get watered on a regular basis. This is a must for me as I can't be trusted to remember to water my garden all the time.  
  • Drip systems conserve water since the water goes directly into the ground where it is needed, instead of up into the air.
Setting up a drip system can be complicated or simple.  My drip system is part of the overall landscape irrigation system that we installed.  However, you can easily set up a drip system off the hose bib in your yard as well.  They even sell drip system kits at the home improvement stores.  If you want more info, check out this free irrigation tutorial site.  

Once you are done transplanting and your seeds have started growing well, it is a good idea to apply a layer of mulch to the garden.  Mulch helps to keep the ground from drying out too much, and it also keeps the plants off of the moist ground. Alfalfa hay is especially good to use as a mulch because it provides nutrients to the soil as time goes on.

Deep mulch gardening, which I will be experimenting with this year, is a method whereby you add lots of mulch (at least 8-12 inches) and leave it in place.  Then you just separate the mulch a bit to plant.  This method is supposed to involve no digging or weeding, as more mulch gets continually added on top while the mulch on the bottom breaks down.  Where I live, the trickiest part of implementing this method will be watering.  I'll let you know how my experiments with this method work out.

Get the Kids Involved 
Getting your kids involved in the garden is wonderful.  It teaches them about the life cycle of plants, lets them feel responsible and confident, and gives them skills for their own gardening endeavors as they grow up.  Even very young children can participate, although when they are under 2-years-old their contributions will look more like getting filthy in the dirt. My daughter has had her own little garden space since she was three-years-old.  She helps me plant seeds and transplant seedlings into my garden, but she especially loves having her own space where she can plant anything she wants, however she wants!  And she is immeasurably proud when she gets to harvest food from her garden and watch us all enjoy it at the dinner table.

Watch it Grow and Keep a Journal!
Once your garden is planted, it's time to enjoy watching it grow until the foods are ripe.  A friend gave me the great idea to keep a gardening journal.  Each year, I record what was planted, when it was planted, and how it fared.  This helps me keep track from year-to-year on what worked best.

What are you planting this year? Have you tried deep mulch gardening?  What are your tips for planting the summer garden?

This post is part of Fight Back Friday!


Jeanette said...

If you can manage to put cardboard under your mulch it will help hold the moisture better and almost guarantee no weeds at all for this season (and maybe the next couple as well!).
Mulch can actually help the root zone to be 10-15 degrees cooler than unmulched ground. The first year that we put in a deep mulch we had tomatoes when our friends tomatoes gave out in the heat. Tomatoes love the heat but they like cool roots. That is true for Lots of other plants too. It also helps protect winter roots by keeping the soil warmer.
Enjoy your gardening!

Sarah Smith said...

Thanks for the tips, Jeanette! I'll give a try!

Mrs Johnson said...

Sarah, we got really serious about deep mulching this year after watching this film last winter:

We had been deep mulching around fruit trees and shrubs and grapevines and of course in the garden, but we found out we can get free mulch from a neighboring county and have broadened the area and deepened the mulch to where we have not had to water but once this spring, and only because we had unusually hot weather early in April.

I agree with Jeanette about the cardboard - as well as burlap bags, old carpet runners, and just about anything else I can get my hands on that doesn't cost me! We have had very good success with cardboard and burlap for walkways in the garden.

Anyway, thanks for all your great recipes. My friend is getting ready to deliver their tenth child and she's been GAPS this past week on into delivery because she has been having indigestion troubles, and GAPS has helped her in the past. Now I know what I'm going to make to take to Shabbat dinner this weekend!

Miss you, and hope you are well ;-)


Sarah Smith said...

Lori, it's great to hear from you!

Thanks for sharing that link! What a great video. I'm excited to share it with others.

I have about 2-3 inches of mulch on my garden, but am thinking more would be good. I'm sure I'll have to water some (you know how dry it is here), but hopefully less than usual. I'll be calling the local tree chippers (if there are any) to see about wood chips, and I know I can get free compost from the city landfill. I also have a friend with plenty of horse/cow manure, so that is exciting too. The grass in our back yard has never done well, and I'm thinking maybe we should just cover it all over and let is sit; that way good soil will be developing even if we don't plant anything on it right away. The chickens (only 2 so far) do like eating the little bit of grass that sprouts up, though, but I guess they'd also like digging for bugs in the mulch.

I'm glad GAPS is helping your friend, and I could send her a copy of the cookbook if it would be helpful.

Take care!